Division 7A of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936 is a poisonous well of hissing snakes for general practitioners when dealing with companies. In very broad and simple terms it can claim income tax on amounts paid to, or loaned to, or debts forgiven from, shareholders or related individuals or entities.
The following examples are very simplistic and there are lots of qualifications and exceptions – but each one carries a very bright red flag.
Be careful with guarantees
Betty’s company is giving a mortgage to her Bank to support a borrowing by her business partnership. Betty asks you to advise her. You point out, amongst other things, that the company is jointly liable with the partnership for the debt. She says – what the heck – and happily signs .
Under section 109UA the partners of Betty’s partnership will be liable for tax on the amount of the loan unless the company’s liability under the guarantee is contingent on the partnership defaulting.
Be careful paying off a mortgage
You acted for Chloe on the sale of a company property mortgaged to secure borrowings of her business partnership. The mortgage was discharged out of the sale proceeds.
Section 109C(3)(a) states that “payment to an entity” includes “a payment to the extent it is… on behalf of the entity …”
Clearly the company paying off the partnership debt is “on behalf of” it. So the partners cop tax on the amount of the debt repaid.
Be careful with what you buy
Terry looks after his mother. He wants to provide her with a house. He has a family company with lots of money. He therefore buys the house in the company for his mum to live in rent free.
Under section 109CA “Payment to an entity includes the provision of an asset for use by the entity”. People are entities for tax purposes. Terry’s mum will therefore be liable to tax on the market value of the rent.
Be careful with succession
Michael and his wife Suzy own the shares in the company that owns the family farm. They want to pass it on to their son Charlie. You tell them that if the company transfers the land direct to Charlie it will be stamp duty free under the intergenerational exemption in section 274 of the Duties Act.
Under section 109C a transfer of property is taken to be payment of an amount equal to the market value. Charlie will therefore be able liable for income tax on the farm’s market value.
Be careful with leases
None of Peter’s children want to be farmers so Peter has agreed to lease the farm to his nephew Harry. He wants the relationship to be legally binding but doesn’t want to put too much pressure on Harry. This farm is owned by his family company. So you fix up the lease with a 50% discount on the rent compared to market value.
This is trickier. A note to the section 109CA states that “provision of an asset” includes “provision under a lease or licence”. So, on the face of it, Harry is okay because the section does not apply where the market value amount of rent would be tax-deductible if paid in full.
However, on its website the ATO takes the view that: “a right to use property that is made by way of a lease of real property involves a transfer of property to the lessee and is considered a payment for Division 7A purposes.”
This reflects paragraph 1.6 of the Explanatory Memorandum to the Tax Laws Amendment (2010 Measures No. 2) Act 2010 which states that a “transfer of property” includes a “lease of real property”. Poor Harry is therefore stuck with the rental discount to be added to his assessable income.
Be careful with family debts
Fred is handing over his plumbing business (conducted through his family company) to his daughter Annabelle by transferring the shares to her. Fred owes the company quite a lot of money, which he doesn’t want to be liable for when Annabelle takes over. So he asks you to prepare a deed of forgiveness of the debt.
Section 109F includes in the assessable income of a shareholder the amount of a forgiven debt. Fred may not have to repay the debt, but he is liable for tax on the amount of it.
- Companies are full of tax traps
- When you see a red flag, research the problem, or call for help.
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